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The Syrian Electronic Army (SEA) the Virtual Army in Cyberspace, Hacking as a Weapon

Written by Dr. Monzer Ali Ahmad

Introduction

With the growing dependence on the Internet and its new applications, we can see that, in parallel with the wars that are taking place in the real squares, there is other wars that take place behind computer screens in the virtual world, which are not less importance and dangerous, in their results than traditional ones. The heroes of these wars are a group of professional programmers, some people may consider them good heroes and others see them as bad one. Ethical Hacking and Bad Hackers works in much the same way and even use identical skills to perform the hacking. Good hackers are also called white hats or security hackers, and bad hackers are called crackers or black hats.

This is also the case of the Syrian electronic army members, as some people see them as good and some others classify them as bad and dangerous.

In any case, far away from the controversial concept of good and evil, we can say that the members of the electronic army have succeeded in making serious crack in the brain and the way of thinking of the western society people, who were victims of traditional media coverage for many years.

 

Neumann's Spiral of Silence Theory, The one view dominated the public scene and others disappeared from the public awareness as it adherents became silent, The spiral of silence imposed by the major powers who controlled the traditional media for many years, but by the advent of Internet as essential means for communication and information, the electronic army was able, by using the new media as a weapon in its hand, to overturn the concept of the spiral of silence and break its norms, and succeeded in conveying its messages to the Western society, which falls under the great pressure and influence of the Western supreme media agencies, which exercises selectiveness in presenting the news the topics and the way they present these stories. The power of Western media influence is undeniable; this was referred to by the former Secretary-General of the United Nations, Boutros-Ghali, when he said:" The member states never take action on a problem unless the media take up the case. When the media gets involved, public opinion is aroused. Public emotion is so intense that United Nations work is undermined and constructive statesmanship is almost impossible. "

We also know that Western societies that suffer from migratory waves only pay attention to the results obtained as a result of these migrations,  they don't know and don't care about what is going and taking place at the other side of the world, and this can be attributed to media policy followed in the west  since many Mr. Fred H. Cate  explained this in his article titled "CNN effect" is Not Clear-Cut, he said* "To save money, Western press organizations have closed foreign bureaus and have reduced coverage of non-Western news by 75% or more over the past three decades. As a result, the public in many Western countries is astonishingly ignorant about life in other parts of the world, particularly about the causes of humanitarian emergencies and the practical tools for preventing and mitigating them." (1)

 To face this attack and media fabrication that his country was facing at that time, the Syrian Electronic Army had two options, either to remain silent, which the hostile means tried to impose on its national media which have only limited capabilities... or to take the other choice by attacking and confronting these means by penetrating their websites and making use of its fame and to use its platform for spreading the messages that he wants to convey to the others.

VIP member at the hacker's club

  As a result of the daily increase in the number of the internet users all over the world the growing demand for, and interest in the Internet, many people has become familiar with several hackers groups names like “Anonymous, Unit 61398, and later the SEA.

Anonymous is the hacker collective that is known as DDOS (distributed denial of service) attacks that take websites offline and prevent the users from accessing its content, Anonymous also backed the 2011 Occupy movement and WikiLeaks' Julian Assange.

People are also familiar with “PAL Unit 61398”, which is “is the Military Unit Cover Designator (MUCD) of a People's Liberation Army advanced persistent threat unit that has been alleged to be the source of Chinese computer hacking attacks” (2)

 Intelligence analysts who have studied the group said that it is the central element of Chinese computer espionage. The Unit was also described by the Project 2049 Institute, a nongovernmental organization in Virginia, which studies security and policy issues in Asia. “Unit 61398” is premier entity targeting the United States and Canada, most likely focusing on political, economic, and military-related intelligence”.

   No doubt, the level of the electronic warfare between pro-government supporters and anti-government supporter has escalated since the beginning of the uprising in Syrian not only on the real battlefield, but also in the virtual websites fields. Today, social media websites have turned into subsidiary virtual battlefields to the real one, where we can see the form of violence which is manifested in the closing and attacking Facebook pages and accounts. Earlier, Facebook users used to send various kind of reports about improper use of Facebook features, like “this group is about me or a friend, it's harassing me or it's harassing a friend or this group is about something else like Sexually explicit content, Hate speech, Violence or harmful behavior, Spam or scam. These options enable Facebook users to send reports and manage their choices about the page which they want to close. Based on reports received, Facebook administration can respond appropriately to these reports, when it is convinced that the particular page is violating Facebook rules.

One of the most active groups that emerged during these events was the Syrian Electronic Army (SEA), which became very popular and famous in the Hacker’s world as a result to its successful penetrations not only against the opposition pages and its websites, but its activities has exceeded the local level to international one and that was through its penetration to the most famous media firms, organizations, ministries, organizations…etc.     

CNN which was one of its targets has published an article entitled “What is the Syrian Electronic Army?” written by Laura Smith-Spark and Dominique Van Heerden, on April 25, 2013 has defined the Syrian Electronic Army SEA as, a group of pro-Syrian regime hackers that has aggressively targeted major news organizations and activists -- may operate in cyberspace, but its attacks can have real-life impact. (3)

In Wikipedia-Arabic and the source of this definition was “France 24” which also was penetrated by the SEA we can find this definition for the Syrian Electronic Army SEA.

Syrian Electronic Army SEA is virtual group (on the Internet) of activists and supporters to the Syrian government during the events of 2011-2012 Syria, targeting through its virtual operations the websites of the opposition, and in order to coordinate is using its own website as well as pages on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. The members of this group are performing attacks on news websites and blogs that publish dissenting views to the Syrian government, and these attacks are in the form of penetrations or flooding the website with comments in favor of Bashar Al-Assad or comments of charges of treasons or insults directed at opponents, or through sending a large number of complaints against specific Facebook pages in order to urge the Facebook administration to close.

The Syrian Electronic Army and in its own words, on its official website, now it has been closed, stated, “We are a group of enthusiastic Syrian youths who could not stay passive towards the massive distortion of facts about the recent uprising in Syria."

And about the stage of foundation of the SEA one of its members said, “The SEA was started at the beginning of the Syria crisis. Young Syrians came together to defend their country against the bloody propaganda campaign by media organizations, such as Al Jazeera, BBC, and France24. We're all Syrian youths who each have our specialized computer skills, such as hacking and graphic design. Our mission is to defend our proud and beloved country Syria against the bloody media war that has been waged against her. The controlled media of certain countries continues to publish lies and fabricated news about Syria.”

Helmi Noman, a senior researcher at the Citizen Lab, Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto He explained that Syria has become “the first Arab country to have a public Internet Army hosted on its national networks to launch cyber attacks on its enemies.”, and also he explained the difference between previously famous hackers groups like, Unit 61398 and Anonymous and the Syrian Electronic Army SEA group.  He said,

“while the Syrian Electronic Army's activities bear some similarities to those of Anonymous and Unit 61398, the group is quite different in other ways, Not only do its domain name and registration betray clear connections with Syria, but its members are reachable through the group's website, Facebook and Twitter pages." (4)

In its hacking process, the SEA members has used various nick names and titles like “ArabAttack”, “The Shadow” “The Pr0”, “Saqer Syria”, “Sy Team” and “al3rab” and Shadi Shady  (شادي روحي فدى الأسد )…..etc.

The shadow was interviewed by Francis Bea on May 10, 2013 – “Inside the mind of the Syrian Electronic Army and its leader”

Francis Bea has interviewed the Syrian Electronic Army member who mentioned that he is 24 years old and his title is “The Shadow”, he must be another name of previously mentioned Shadi Mahmoud whom I interviewed later but no certain information about the members of this group, the Shadow mentioned that, "We could not stay passive towards the massive distortion of facts about the recent uprising in Syria. The U.S. media is exploiting good thinking people by pumping reports of a revolution. You see what the American government wants you to see, but it is a fake revolution.” As it is clear, he believes the American government forced news organizations to publish damning Syrian regime reports, spurring him to form the SEA and launch countermeasures.

Interview with SEA's leader.

  In order to know more details about the SEA, I searched about its leader and I have interviewed him, his real name as he said is ‘Shadi Mahmoud’ and his logo is “Shadi, my soul is for Assad’s sake” (شادي روحي فدى الأسد )Shadi Mahmoud is the head of the Syrian Electronic Army, and he assured to me that he has decided to reveal his identity to the public after the terrorist groups, which works for USA and Israel, has assassinated one member of the SEA who is Christian and they have stolen his laptop and they found Shadi’s messages and everything about him on that stolen laptop, Shadi said after knowing my identity they have tried to kill me and they bombed my car, but at that day my brother has used the car instead of me and the bomb was exploded and there was big explosion and my brother was seriously injured, Shadi showed me photos of his injured brother, for these reasons and after these incidents Shadi said that he has decided to appear to the public in challenge since he has nothing to be afraid of and his enemies had knew his identity.

In his page, Shadi has published what he calls as the “Hacker’s law” which says “Behind every Hacker’s smile… there is a Victim’s tear! We adore death and we don’t like the weak… for that reason we entered the hackers schools to punish the basters! We have no compassion and we do not accept the threat, you have the freedom of expression and we have the freedom of hacking! We do not penetrate to prove that we are professionals, but to put black spot in your history… We will not give up… we penetrate or we die.”        

About the SEA members Shadi mentioned that they are 24 members 22 two men and 2 girls and the youngest one is 20 years old and the oldest is 39 years old and they are working together to achieve their targets. He mentioned that, during the Syrian crises we helped in monitoring the movements of what so called the Free Syrian Army FSA and we worked on discovering the places that the Free Army has intended to detonate it. We have also disclosed the Free Army leaders and we have handed over to the security authorities and we monitored their movements which they intended to do it like attacking on any check points or any munitions warehouse that belongs to the Syrian Arab Army.

SEA: Israel is our first enemy

After the Israeli air strike attack against Syria, the SEA role was very clear through its attack to Israeli websites as revenge and reaction against these assaults Shadi and through an interview with Syrian official Radio Sawt al Shaab or “People’s Voice” he has talked about his last attack against Israeli websites.

Israel is our first enemy, and it is the one that works to fight us with their followers of the Qataris and others who wants to destroy us as a country, and as a sovereignty but by the God’s well we as a state and as a SEA will not give them a chance. We've threatened these Israeli websites, before penetrating it and this gives them the opportunity to take caution of our attacks, we have penetrated big sites related to banking cards.... we have penetrated these websites, and we have put the Syrian flag on their websites and we have deleted all their data and we deposit all documents and we burned all bank cards..... We also run the siren…after we penetrated the websites of the all Interior ministry, Foreign Ministry and Education websites.

No doubt that Israel, which is very famous of its strong security systems, was very angry at that penetration and it considered that, penetrating the details of thousands of bank cards owned by its citizens and publishing its details on the Internet amounts to terrorism act. According to the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) Radio, a senior official in the Israeli Foreign Ministry vowed to responded against this security breach, “that was carried out by Syrian pirate believed to be on the internet and named “Shadi, my soul is for Assad’s sake” Israel announced that the stealing of this information, which seems to be focused on the commercial sites on the Internet, is one of the worst cyber-attacks which has encountered.

In spite of the fact that reports has indicated that the financial damage resulting from the theft of this information is not great, this breakthrough raises fears of the possibility that this information may be used by the enemies of the Israeli entity. For that reason, the Deputy Israeli Foreign Minister Danny Ayalon has seriously said in a speech at a community center in Jerusalem that such attacks are a violation of the sovereignty which amount to a terrorist operation level, and must be treated according to this base. Israel has active capabilities for an attack on those who are trying to harm it, and there will be no immune institution or pirate from our revenge, at any way.  Ayalon did not elaborate on the nature of these reprisals. Shadi has considered it as a serious threaten of assassination: It is a real threaten of assassination they have assassinated one of the SEA members and now they are trying to assassinate me they ordered their agents to do that and they distributed my address and published my photos and all information about me, but I’m not afraid and I’m ready to face death for the sake of my country.

Charles Arthur in his article in Guardian.co.uk entitled “The Syrian Electronic Army: Bashar al-Assad's shadow warriors” has assured the fact that the SEA members are in risk of being killed if their identities were revealed and discovered.

According to defectors from inside its ranks, the group moved last year from Damascus to a secret base in Dubai. (Some pro-regime volunteers remain inside Syria, but they are at greater risk there of being unmasked and killed.)” Of course, it was difficult to confirm this information. (5)

Shadi has talked about their future plans and their coming targets and he said that they have many targets which he can’t reveal now but their next target will be Qatar and the western’s Gulf he said: “Our next target will be Qatar and the western’s Gulf...... We are against every person who does not like Syria's Assad and against America and Israel. ”

The Syrian Electronic Army VS the Syrian Government:

President Bashar Al-Assad and during his speech he has made a point of thanking to a group called the Syrian Electronic Army, describing them as a "virtual army in cyberspace" and that was in his speech in Damascus university Auditorium in 20, Jun 2011 president Bashar al-Assad has openly mentioned the Syrian electronic army by name “Young people have an important role to play at this stage, because they have proven themselves to be an active power. There is the Electronic Army, which has been a real army in virtual reality." May be for this reason, it is widely believed that, the Syrian government is standing behind the SEA's activities. OpeNnet Initiative mentioned in a study about SEA entitled “Syrian Electronic Army: Disruptive Attacks and Hyped Targets. The SEA stated on its website that it was honoured by the mention in the Presidential speech, but reiterated that it is not affiliated with any government entity. Although we have no concrete evidence linking the SEA to the Syrian regime, the President’s statement, and the fact that the group is able to operate with impunity over Syrian networks, shows at least tacit support for its activities.

Tacit Support

Helmi Noman, claimed that the SEA is receiving a "tacit support" from the Syrian government. What we know is their domain name was registered by the Syrian Computer Society. We looked into the Syrian Computer Society and discovered that it was headed by al-Assad in the 1990s, before he was president; it’s hosted on the network of the Syrian government, which is interesting because it's the first time we've seen a group with questionable activities being hosted on a national computer network.

Also the Syrian opposition has considered this explicit reference to the SEA group in the President speech, at least as an evident to the existence of some direct collaboration with the regime in Damascus. And they supported their assumption depending on the fact that president al-Assad himself was the head of the Syrian Computer Society (SCS) which introduced the Internet to Syria and host the official website of the SEA group.

The opposition activists claim that the SEA is funded by Bashar al- Assad's billionaire cousin, Rami Makhlouf. The opposition activists also believe that the group wants to counter what they feel as a negative portrayal of the Assad’s regime, while it also trying to curb any positive news regarding the opposition through hacking or reporting or by using any method to close and prevent its content. That explains the hacking of opposition websites and its important dissident’s pages and the major media organizations like the Associated Press AP and the BBC who disseminate information.

Charles Arthur in his article in Guardian.co.uk entitled “The Syrian Electronic Army: Bashar al-Assad's shadow warriors” has mentioned "There are a lot of [pro-regime] Syrian hackers inside Syria and outside Syria," Tareq Al-Jaza'eere, an opposition cyber-activist, said. "The Syrian government gives them money to fight an electronic war against the rebels. They are doing hacks. They are doing social media. Their message is there is no revolution. They say there is a terrorist gang fighting the government. Regardless of the scale of its targets, the SEA group has proved that, they are able to hurt US media, in order to deliver the voice of the Syrian people in order to explain what is really happening on the ground of Syria, not what the media is doing through its fabrication of the facts to serve American interest at the expense of the blood of the Syrian people

SEA and SCS

As the CNN mentioned in its previously mentioned article that, the power of misinformation was amply demonstrated when the group hacked the Associated Press Twitter feed Tuesday.

The fake AP message -- which read, "Breaking: Two Explosions in the White House and Barack Obama is injured," -- caused a brief flurry of panic and sent stocks plummeting.

The tweet was quickly revealed as false, and the Dow Jones Industrial Average recovered from its 145-point dip, but it was nearly a day before the AP Twitter account was restored to life.

However, Noman and his fellow researchers who support the idea that the SEA is funded and supported by the Syrian government do not have any evidence that SEA is actually a Syrian government operation and even if it was supported, this will not be open to the public.

In a step that was not satisfactory to SEA members, the Syrian Computer Society has stopped hosting the official website for the SEA so they published this declaration. We at the Syrian Electronic Army management regret to inform all members and staff that the Syrian Electronic Army's website is no longer functional. This happened due to reasons beyond our control and due to the weak will of some administrators of the Syrian Computer Society (SCS).

We are extremely surprised at the current SCS' decision to stop hosting our official website and furthermore, SCS has refused to host it ever again. They had some unconvincing reasons to do this which follow.

SCS’s hosting of SEA website was used by the western and Arab media as evidence of a link between the SEA and the Syrian government and they used to refer to president Bashar al-Assad of being the former head. So may be its refusal to host the SEA's website proves that these alleged links, and any assertion built on them, have no basis.

The Syrian Computer Society SCS has mentioned in its apologizing message directed to SEA website administration that: The internet service provider in the Syrian Computer Society as one of the SCS’s projects, which aims to support and develop the IT sector in Syrian Arab Republic, on the basis of the principles and objectives of the association to support all national capacities and support and secure the chances of success for it, we were and still enthusiasts and supporters for you and for your effective role.

But, as you know, in recent times specifically on 04/10/2013, we were affected by unjust decision against us and against the country represented in stopping all domains reserved for us or by us and that in turn led to stop the service so far, from a large number of subscribers (individuals, companies, and even government sites and news), and in turn it has also led to business owners affected sites and parked domains provider, which has caused serious material damage to their interests.

After this block, the SEA apologized from its members and they announced that, we announce that our website will be offline while we find another hosting company that agrees to host our website that our enemies tried to attack for so long using treason or other means.

Of course the opposition has created new Facebook pages in order to face the pro-government supporter pages. These pages has tried to do the same job of the SEA group but there job was not famous or able to reach an international levels like in the case of the SEA and it was restricted to simple acts like closing and attacking pro-government Facebook pages or groups by using the reports feature in Facebook and when Facebook invented this feature it was essentially to inform Facebook administration about bad or inappropriate content published by certain person or page ” We encourage people on Facebook to use the report buttons located across our site to let us know if they find content that violates our terms of use so we can take it down”  at any way it was used by Syrian Facebook users as a weapon in their virtual war in internet fields, in addition to real war in field there was another war taking place on Facebook pages, the most famous warriors of this war were the Syrian Electronic Army SEA, and the Chinese army for stepping on the Shabeeha's pages “الجيش الصيني لدعس صفحات الشبيحة”, it has 68,621 followers and by using this big number of people the administrators of this page inform the followers about the pages which they want to close, they use legal way by reporting the page with the same report so the Facebook administration respond to their reports and they close the page or the account and this happen every time and the same thing happen by the pro-government supports who by their role inform about contents which they believe it against president or against their religion or sects and they have closed many pages in addition to the essential role in revealing the suspicious role of various media tools. CNN mentioned in its article that. Noman has noted that an evolution in the Syrian Electronic Army's methods over time. Early attacks focused on apparently irrelevant websites, but later efforts shifted first toward compromising the Facebook pages of organizations seen as hostile to the Syrian government, and now high-profile Twitter accounts. Noman has said that, they demonstrate interest in disrupting the flow of information, especially the flow of information from international media; this is not surprising because it is in line with what the Syrian government itself has tried to do, in accusing the regional and international media of being biased against it.

Hacked websites by the Syrian  Electronic Army: Syrian Electronic Army SEA has openly owned  responsibility for hacking and penetrating many international media agencies and it has a very long list of hacked websites, accounts, Facebook pages and groups, twitter accounts Emails….etc. The SEA has used many techniques to  achieve their goals like Facebook comment spamming campaigns defacement of Facebook pages related to Syrian political opposition groups, and changing their profile picture of each and replace it by the SEA logo and post pro-regime messages.

The group has used what is known as the denial of service (DoS) software.  This method was especially designed to target media organization websites. OpenNet Initiative has analyzed the software that was essentially used to apply the (DoS) “We have acquired and analyzed the software and found that it is designed to perform denial of service on the websites of Al Jazeera, BBC News, Syrian satellite broadcaster Orient TV, and Dubai-based al-Arabia TV. A group calling itself the “Syrian Hackers School” has a Facebook page that promotes the DoS tool, recruits members, and provides links to resources for learning how to compromise vulnerable websites.” The SEA attacks were also carried out via "phishing" emails which lure recipients into thinking that they are at the login site for their email, so that the hackers can capture email addresses and passwords. It was recorded that the phishing sites techniques was used against the Guardian.

The SEA has hacked Twitter accounts for long time, and it was very clear that the group were very professional and getting better in hacker’s world. They hacked Qatar Foundation’s Twitter and Facebook accounts. Surely those attacks were explicitly political, and made clear the goals of the SEA was to attack Al-Jazeera funding organizations and governments represented in Qatar and its foundations and organizations to refute its propaganda.

"Syrian Electronic Army" has pirated three BBC accounts on Twitter, allocated to each of the weather and the Department of Arabic and its broadcasting radio in Northern Ireland. Many people were surprised why to attack BBC weather accounts on Twitter?  Damaspost.com mentioned that “weather account is transmitting a series of forged tweets in the form of weather bulletins or Tweets targeting Israel or talk about arms shipments to Syrian dissidents.”  

Another target was the Washington Post, Al Jazeera, Human Rights Watch, the Telegraph and the Independent, among others... the group has also succeeded in hijacking AP's main Twitter account, with 1.9 million followers. And twitted this message on April 23, 2013 “Breaking: Two Explosions in the White House and Barack Obama is injured,” It falsely claimed that President Obama had been injured in an explosion, the message was corrected by AP, but not before $140billion had been briefly wiped off the value of stock and 145 points because this tweet has scrambled the investors to sell their shares, fearing the collapse of the government as. So it just took one tweet to rattle the foundation of the U.S. economy. In an article by Francis Bea on May 10, 2013 which included an interview with the Syrian Electronic Army member, ‘Inside the mind of the Syrian Electronic Army and its leader’ he mentioned that “The attack didn’t target the Associated Press, it targeted America, and it came from the Syrian Electronic Army (SEA) – a vigilante organization of kids no older than college students suspected to have ties to the Syrian government. Its leader, who calls himself “The Shadow,” spoke to Digital Trends about the SEA’s attack on the AP’s Twitter account, its other targets, and what it hopes to accomplish.”

SEA members have spammed the Facebook pages of Obama, Nicolas Sarkozy, the European Union, Al-Jazeera and Human Rights Watch, and Oprah Winfrey's Facebook page despite that she have non-existent connections to the Syrian, her page was also hacked because she was representing a big influential among the US public. The group also have hacked the BBC for two times in addition to U.S. outlets CBS News and NPR, as well as Columbia University and rights group Human Rights Watch. The group even compromised the Twitter account Monday of the head of world soccer, FIFA President Sepp Blatter and FIFA's official account for the 2014 World Cup in Brazil.

Here’s a look at the SEA’s targets, as of publishing time:

-  E! Online (Twitter and SMS service)

- The Onion (Twitter and Facebook) The Onion's tech team explained, by sending the following message The SEA were able to obtain the necessary passwords after accessing the email account of an employee who had all the company's social media logins.

The Guardian (11 Twitter accounts)

-  The Associated Press (Twitter)

-  FIFA (Twitter)

-  FIFA president Joseph Blatter (Twitter) tweets referred to Blatter and Qatar's winning 2022 World Cup bid.

-  CBS (Twitter)     

-  NPR (website and Twitter)

League of Arab States (website)

-  BBC (Twitter) The comments included: “Saudi weather station down due to head-on collision with camel,” and: “Chaotic weather forecast for Lebanon as the government decides to distance itself from the Milky Way.”

-  Human Rights Watch (website and Twitter)

-  Deutsche Welle (Twitter)

-  France24 (website and Twitter)

-  Qatar Foundation (Twitter and Facebook)

-  AFP (Twitter)

- Sky News Arabia (Facebook and Twitter) Sky News appeared to tweet a strange message to their 900,000 followers. It simply read: “Colin was here”.

US Army website army.mil and they published this message “Your commanders admit they are training the people they have sent you to die fighting.”

The latest cooperation was with the Anonymous group, whereas the Syrian Electronic Army joined forces in support of the protests in Turkey, hacking government networks and leaking emails and passwords.

The war against Syria is still going on and the list of the SEA is increasing daily and no media tool or organization knows if it is going to be its next target.

Conclusion:

In conclusion, there is no doubt that these wars that take place behind computer screens, as the major powers plan to control them and enhance their national security, while the rest of the countries that do not have any cyber power that can disturb others and disturb their comfort will remain weak and will remain vulnerable to attacks from these countries and will remain a victim of the power of their media, and this The matter that the Syrian Electronic Army rejected, whether we support or reject what they have done, it can be said that they tried to play the role of Robin Hood in this virtual world by defending his people and his country, by fighting evil and defending the weak.

References:

(1)  Fred H. Cate  "CNN effect" is Not Clear-Cut (2002)

https://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/176/31233.html

 (2) (David E. Sanger, David Barboza and Nicole Perlroth, 2013), “Chinese Army Unit Is Seen as Tied to Hacking Against U.S.”    ( http://www.nytimes.com)

(3) https://edition.cnn.com/2013/08/28/tech/syrian-electronic-army/index.html

 (4) https://citizenlab.ca/2014/12/helmi-noman-interviewed-piece-syrian-electronic-army/

 (5) Syrian Electronic Army: Assad's cyber warriors

https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2013/apr/29/hacking-guardian-syria-background .

. (Luke Harding and Charles Arthur, 2013) https://souriahouria.com/hacking-syrian-electronic-army-assads-cyber-warriors-luke-harding-and-charles-arthur/

 

Dr. Monzer Ali Ahmad, Writer and Researcher in New Media and Communication and (SVU) Lecturer.

E-mail This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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